当教学方法遇上心理学,惊喜无处不在!

当教学方法遇上心理学,惊喜无处不在!

技术手段的发明对教育行业产生了深远影响,在全球化教育的背景下,怎么保证个性化教学?怎么为学生提供更适合他们的学习方式和节奏?电子化设备是否应该被适度地运用到教学当中?心理学所提倡的核心教学模式在真实的教学实践中的地位是否受到影响?针对上述系列问题,卓尔大方学校学术总监Nathaniel Westfall,根据自己的学术背景和教学实践经验给出了自己的分析和答案:

Nate Westfall:有化学硕士学位,以及多个本科学位,包括非正常心理学、拉丁文、生物化学与有机化学。他曾在美国大学任教四年,教授化学与心理学;在美国高中教授科学课程一年,并带领过多个科学研究小组。Nate曾担任美达菲国际学校北京校区副校长一职,有两年国际学校工作经验。

In recent years,education has seen a divergence of academic techniques and styles of both learning and teaching.However,at their core,the psychologically proven methods of learning should be remembered and encouraged.These methods,including the basic learning model(Fleming),communication,feedback,and self-study,can be adapted to fit particular audiences,but they are still the best known avenues for effective learning.(4)

近年来,教学界出现一些关于教学手段和教学风格的分歧。然而在面对分歧时我们需鼓励和重视心理学所提倡的学习方法。这些学习方法包括:弗莱明所提出的基本学习模型、交流、反馈和自主学习。学习者可以根据自身的情况选择合适的学习方法,但以上学习方式是目前公认最有效的学习方式。

Before delving into these tenets of learning,the major changing force of education should be addressed-technology.Electronic tools and personal response systems(such as clickers)have become more popular in classrooms.While it seems that their use allows for more classroom variability,more flexibility with curriculum,and ease of access of information,there are concerns about the lack of discipline and shorter attention spans of students.While these are occurring,their frequency and direct causes are not being accurately reported.Research shows that with proper mediation,these electronic devices can offer increased learning potential.(5)

技术的改革是驱动教育改革最主要的动力。我们现在已经可以越来越广泛的在教室里看到电子设备所支持的教学。电子设备的介入,为课堂教学注入更多的可能性,使课堂更加灵活、高效、信息化。但将电子设备引入教学有利有弊:

Many of the learning aides still used by students and teachers are,in fact,out-of-date and ineffective in this changing world.It has been shown that summarization,keyword mnemonics,and intensive reading/rereading are only effective in certain rare cases that make up a relatively small amount of students.(2)

现行的教学工具许多已经无法跟上时代的步伐,且效率低下。研究证明,教学中常用的总结、关键词记忆、和精读只在极少数情况下有意义。

As the technology of the world changes,so too should the technology of the classroom.Learning needs are progressing as a result of large social changes and globalization.This should mean that education should likewise change.Keeping the core methods of learning-reading,writing,listening,and speaking(Fleming).We should adapt our styles to a more sociable and communicative approach.However,learning should always keep the four main methods of learning at its heart.(7)

由于科学技术的变革,教学界也面临着无法避免的变革。在全球化的背景下,我们需要将我们的教学方式变得更加灵活以适应时代的转变。然而,听、说、读、写作为基本的四大学习方式需一直处于教学的核心位置。

One of the most important tools for learning in the classroom is communication.Whether basing communication styles on Piaget or Vygotsky,having an open and communicative classroom is conducive to classroom learning.Furthermore,allowing students to ask questions of the teacher and each other is paramount to good understanding.Students should be guided to build concepts on previous work in a relevant manner.This allows for a continuation of communication and learning.(6)

沟通——课堂教学最主要的手段之一。维持一个开放的交流环境有利于课堂教学的展开,有利于学生吸收课堂知识,有利于学生发展学习方法。

Feedback is important for students to gauge their own abilities and their place in a particular curriculum.This information can help them engage their peers about subjects in which they are either weaker or stronger and lead to open communication.This will increase the learning occurring in the classroom.In addition,feedback allows communication between students and teachers to remain open,increasing exposure to the subjects and giving more opportunity for inquiry.(8)

反馈——另一个有效支持教学的方法。学生可以通过反馈查漏补缺,并进一步加强与教师之间的交流。

Learning in the sciences and mathematics has been researched extensively among high school and junior high school aged students.Their findings support a loose pattern of abilities in these disciplines,rather than an average trend.This means that students generally learn the sciences and mathematics at quite varied paces.With this in mind,students of these subjects should be given the time they need to focus and learn-quick students given extra or more in-depth work and slow students given more time and attention for the regular pace of the work.(3)

大量的研究调查了初中生与高中生在科学和数学学科的学习情况。研究表明,这两大科目是学生能力分级最明显的科目。建议的教学方式是根据学生本身的学习能力提供更明确的分级教学,而不是单一的依据年级教学。

Allowing students to learn a a pace that fits their learning styles gives a higher chance of thorough understanding and long-term memory gain.Students should be given the freedom to learn at the optimum pace for themselves,not for anyone else.Teachers should supervise students inasmuch as students need guiding,especially to remain focused.Otherwise,students-especially teenage students-should be allowed to grow at their own pace,with teachers should monitor loosely.(1)

依据学生的学习风格进行教学,可以促进学生对知识的吸收和长期记忆。学生应该用更适合他们自己的学习方式学习,应该提倡以学生为中心的教学方式,教师应该更多的提供引导与协助,而不是主导学习过程。

In conclusion,while students should be allowed to learn in the styles and at the pace that is optimum for them,this is challenging with a globalizing populations that try to have students fit averages.Electronics should be utilized,but not abused or overused.Classrooms need to become a place of open discourse between students and teachers.All of these things are necessary in a changing world,but the core learning modes-psychologically proven-remain vital to true academic success.

结论:在全球化教育的背景下,大部分的学校都在尝试让学生保持平均水平,这使得个性化教学充满挑战,但学校还是应该努力尝试为学生提供更适合他们的学习方式和节奏。电子化设备应该被适度地运用到教学当中。教师应该是学生和教师自由交谈的场所。以上的变革都将不可避免,但心理学所提倡的核心教学模式在真实的教学实践中会始终保留他们的地位。

1.Chapelle,O;et alia.(2009).Semi-supervised learning.IEECIS.

2.Dunlosky,J;Rawson,K;Marsh,E;Mitchell,N;Willingham,D.(2013).Improving students’learning with effective learning techniques.JAPS.14(1).4-58

3.Hastie,T;Tibshirani,R;Friedman,J.(2008).Unsupervised Learning.The Elements of Statistical Learning.Springer Science Publishing.

4.Lovat,T;Clement,N.(2008).Quality teaching and values education.Journal of Moral Education.37(1).1-16.

5.Moss,K;Crowley,M.(2010).Effective learning in science.Journal of Computers and Education.56(1).36-43.

6.Powell,K;Kalina,C.(2009).Cognitive and social constructivism.Journal of Education.130(2).241-250.

7.Siemens,G.(2014).Connectivism:a learning theory for the digital age.IDTL.52(11)42-57.

8.Siemens,G;Long,P.(2011).Penetrating the fog:analytics for leaning and education.Journal of Education.132(1).30-33

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